# Logistic regression - overview

This page offers structured overviews of one or more selected methods. Add additional methods for comparisons by clicking on the dropdown button in the right-hand column. To practice with a specific method click the button at the bottom row of the table

Logistic regression
Chi-squared test for the relationship between two categorical variables
Independent variablesIndependent /column variable
One or more quantitative of interval or ratio level and/or one or more categorical with independent groups, transformed into code variablesOne categorical with $I$ independent groups ($I \geqslant 2$)
Dependent variableDependent /row variable
One categorical with 2 independent groupsOne categorical with $J$ independent groups ($J \geqslant 2$)
Null hypothesisNull hypothesis
Model chi-squared test for the complete regression model:
• H0: $\beta_1 = \beta_2 = \ldots = \beta_K = 0$
Wald test for individual regression coefficient $\beta_k$:
• H0: $\beta_k = 0$
or in terms of odds ratio:
• H0: $e^{\beta_k} = 1$
Likelihood ratio chi-squared test for individual regression coefficient $\beta_k$:
• H0: $\beta_k = 0$
or in terms of odds ratio:
• H0: $e^{\beta_k} = 1$
in the regression equation $\ln \big(\frac{\pi_{y = 1}}{1 - \pi_{y = 1}} \big) = \beta_0 + \beta_1 \times x_1 + \beta_2 \times x_2 + \ldots + \beta_K \times x_K$. Here $x_i$ represents independent variable $i$, $\beta_i$ is the regression weight for independent variable $x_i$, and $\pi_{y = 1}$ represents the true probability that the dependent variable $y = 1$ (or equivalently, the proportion of $y = 1$ in the population) given the scores on the independent variables.
H0: there is no association between the row and column variable

More precisely, if there are $I$ independent random samples of size $n_i$ from each of $I$ populations, defined by the independent variable:
• H0: the distribution of the dependent variable is the same in each of the $I$ populations
If there is one random sample of size $N$ from the total population:
• H0: the row and column variables are independent
Alternative hypothesisAlternative hypothesis
Model chi-squared test for the complete regression model:
• H1: not all population regression coefficients are 0
Wald test for individual regression coefficient $\beta_k$:
• H1: $\beta_k \neq 0$
or in terms of odds ratio:
• H1: $e^{\beta_k} \neq 1$
If defined as Wald $= \dfrac{b_k}{SE_{b_k}}$ (see 'Test statistic'), also one sided alternatives can be tested:
• H1 right sided: $\beta_k > 0$
• H1 left sided: $\beta_k < 0$
Likelihood ratio chi-squared test for individual regression coefficient $\beta_k$:
• H1: $\beta_k \neq 0$
or in terms of odds ratio:
• H1: $e^{\beta_k} \neq 1$
H1: there is an association between the row and column variable

More precisely, if there are $I$ independent random samples of size $n_i$ from each of $I$ populations, defined by the independent variable:
• H1: the distribution of the dependent variable is not the same in all of the $I$ populations
If there is one random sample of size $N$ from the total population:
• H1: the row and column variables are dependent
AssumptionsAssumptions
• In the population, the relationship between the independent variables and the log odds $\ln (\frac{\pi_{y=1}}{1 - \pi_{y=1}})$ is linear
• The residuals are independent of one another
• Variables are measured without error
Also pay attention to:
• Multicollinearity
• Outliers
• Sample size is large enough for $X^2$ to be approximately chi-squared distributed under the null hypothesis. Rule of thumb:
• 2 $\times$ 2 table: all four expected cell counts are 5 or more
• Larger than 2 $\times$ 2 tables: average of the expected cell counts is 5 or more, smallest expected cell count is 1 or more
• There are $I$ independent simple random samples from each of $I$ populations defined by the independent variable, or there is one simple random sample from the total population
Test statisticTest statistic
Model chi-squared test for the complete regression model:
• $X^2 = D_{null} - D_K = \mbox{null deviance} - \mbox{model deviance}$
$D_{null}$, the null deviance, is conceptually similar to the total variance of the dependent variable in OLS regression analysis. $D_K$, the model deviance, is conceptually similar to the residual variance in OLS regression analysis.
Wald test for individual $\beta_k$:
The wald statistic can be defined in two ways:
• Wald $= \dfrac{b_k^2}{SE^2_{b_k}}$
• Wald $= \dfrac{b_k}{SE_{b_k}}$
SPSS uses the first definition

Likelihood ratio chi-squared test for individual $\beta_k$:
• $X^2 = D_{K-1} - D_K$
$D_{K-1}$ is the model deviance, where independent variable $k$ is excluded from the model. $D_{K}$ is the model deviance, where independent variable $k$ is included in the model.
$X^2 = \sum{\frac{(\mbox{observed cell count} - \mbox{expected cell count})^2}{\mbox{expected cell count}}}$
where for each cell, the expected cell count = $\dfrac{\mbox{row total} \times \mbox{column total}}{\mbox{total sample size}}$, the observed cell count is the observed sample count in that same cell, and the sum is over all $I \times J$ cells
Sampling distribution of $X^2$ and of the Wald statistic if H0 were trueSampling distribution of $X^2$ if H0 were true
Sampling distribution of $X^2$, as computed in the model chi-squared test for the complete model:
• chi-squared distribution with $K$ (number of independent variables) degrees of freedom
Sampling distribution of the Wald statistic:
• If defined as Wald $= \dfrac{b_k^2}{SE^2_{b_k}}$: approximately the chi-squared distribution with 1 degree of freedom
• If defined as Wald $= \dfrac{b_k}{SE_{b_k}}$: approximately the standard normal distribution
Sampling distribution of $X^2$, as computed in the likelihood ratio chi-squared test for individual $\beta_k$:
• chi-squared distribution with 1 degree of freedom
Approximately the chi-squared distribution with $(I - 1) \times (J - 1)$ degrees of freedom
Significant?Significant?
For the model chi-squared test for the complete regression model and likelihood ratio chi-squared test for individual $\beta_k$:
• Check if $X^2$ observed in sample is equal to or larger than critical value $X^{2*}$ or
• Find $p$ value corresponding to observed $X^2$ and check if it is equal to or smaller than $\alpha$
For the Wald test:
• If defined as Wald $= \dfrac{b_k^2}{SE^2_{b_k}}$: same procedure as for the chi-squared tests. Wald can be interpret as $X^2$
• If defined as Wald $= \dfrac{b_k}{SE_{b_k}}$: same procedure as for any $z$ test. Wald can be interpreted as $z$.
• Check if $X^2$ observed in sample is equal to or larger than critical value $X^{2*}$ or
• Find $p$ value corresponding to observed $X^2$ and check if it is equal to or smaller than $\alpha$
Wald-type approximate $C\%$ confidence interval for $\beta_k$n.a.
$b_k \pm z^* \times SE_{b_k}$
where the critical value $z^*$ is the value under the normal curve with the area $C / 100$ between $-z^*$ and $z^*$ (e.g. $z^*$ = 1.96 for a 95% confidence interval)
-
Goodness of fit measure $R^2_L$n.a.
$R^2_L = \dfrac{D_{null} - D_K}{D_{null}}$
There are several other goodness of fit measures in logistic regression. In logistic regression, there is no single agreed upon measure of goodness of fit.
-
Example contextExample context
Can body mass index, stress level, and gender predict whether people get diagnosed with diabetes?Is there an association between economic class and gender? Is the distribution of economic class different between men and women?
SPSSSPSS
Analyze > Regression > Binary Logistic...
• Put your dependent variable in the box below Dependent and your independent (predictor) variables in the box below Covariate(s)
Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Crosstabs...
• Put one of your two categorical variables in the box below Row(s), and the other categorical variable in the box below Column(s)
• Click the Statistics... button, and click on the square in front of Chi-square
• Continue and click OK
JamoviJamovi
Regression > 2 Outcomes - Binomial
• Put your dependent variable in the box below Dependent Variable and your independent variables of interval/ratio level in the box below Covariates
• If you also have code (dummy) variables as independent variables, you can put these in the box below Covariates as well
• Instead of transforming your categorical independent variable(s) into code variables, you can also put the untransformed categorical independent variables in the box below Factors. Jamovi will then make the code variables for you 'behind the scenes'
Frequencies > Independent Samples - $\chi^2$ test of association
• Put one of your two categorical variables in the box below Rows, and the other categorical variable in the box below Columns
Practice questionsPractice questions