One sample z test for the mean  overview
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One sample $z$ test for the mean  Two sample $t$ test  equal variances not assumed 


Independent variable  Independent/grouping variable  
None  One categorical with 2 independent groups  
Dependent variable  Dependent variable  
One quantitative of interval or ratio level  One quantitative of interval or ratio level  
Null hypothesis  Null hypothesis  
H_{0}: $\mu = \mu_0$
$\mu$ is the population mean; $\mu_0$ is the population mean according to the null hypothesis  H_{0}: $\mu_1 = \mu_2$
$\mu_1$ is the population mean for group 1, $\mu_2$ is the population mean for group 2  
Alternative hypothesis  Alternative hypothesis  
H_{1} two sided: $\mu \neq \mu_0$ H_{1} right sided: $\mu > \mu_0$ H_{1} left sided: $\mu < \mu_0$  H_{1} two sided: $\mu_1 \neq \mu_2$ H_{1} right sided: $\mu_1 > \mu_2$ H_{1} left sided: $\mu_1 < \mu_2$  
Assumptions  Assumptions  

 
Test statistic  Test statistic  
$z = \dfrac{\bar{y}  \mu_0}{\sigma / \sqrt{N}}$
$\bar{y}$ is the sample mean, $\mu_0$ is the population mean according to the null hypothesis, $\sigma$ is the population standard deviation, $N$ is the sample size. The denominator $\sigma / \sqrt{N}$ is the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of $\bar{y}$. The $z$ value indicates how many of these standard deviations $\bar{y}$ is removed from $\mu_0$.  $t = \dfrac{(\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2)  0}{\sqrt{\dfrac{s^2_1}{n_1} + \dfrac{s^2_2}{n_2}}} = \dfrac{\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2}{\sqrt{\dfrac{s^2_1}{n_1} + \dfrac{s^2_2}{n_2}}}$
$\bar{y}_1$ is the sample mean in group 1, $\bar{y}_2$ is the sample mean in group 2, $s^2_1$ is the sample variance in group 1, $s^2_2$ is the sample variance in group 2, $n_1$ is the sample size of group 1, $n_2$ is the sample size of group 2. The 0 represents the difference in population means according to the null hypothesis. The denominator $\sqrt{\frac{s^2_1}{n_1} + \frac{s^2_2}{n_2}}$ is the standard error of the sampling distribution of $\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2$. The $t$ value indicates how many standard errors $\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2$ is removed from 0. Note: we could just as well compute $\bar{y}_2  \bar{y}_1$ in the numerator, but then the left sided alternative becomes $\mu_2 < \mu_1$, and the right sided alternative becomes $\mu_2 > \mu_1$.  
Sampling distribution of $z$ if H_{0} were true  Sampling distribution of $t$ if H_{0} were true  
Standard normal distribution  Approximately the $t$ distribution with $k$ degrees of freedom, with $k$ equal to $k = \dfrac{\Bigg(\dfrac{s^2_1}{n_1} + \dfrac{s^2_2}{n_2}\Bigg)^2}{\dfrac{1}{n_1  1} \Bigg(\dfrac{s^2_1}{n_1}\Bigg)^2 + \dfrac{1}{n_2  1} \Bigg(\dfrac{s^2_2}{n_2}\Bigg)^2}$ or $k$ = the smaller of $n_1$  1 and $n_2$  1 First definition of $k$ is used by computer programs, second definition is often used for hand calculations.  
Significant?  Significant?  
Two sided:
 Two sided:
 
$C\%$ confidence interval for $\mu$  Approximate $C\%$ confidence interval for $\mu_1  \mu_2$  
$\bar{y} \pm z^* \times \dfrac{\sigma}{\sqrt{N}}$
where $z^*$ is the value under the normal curve with the area $C / 100$ between $z^*$ and $z^*$ (e.g. $z^*$ = 1.96 for a 95% confidence interval) The confidence interval for $\mu$ can also be used as significance test.  $(\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2) \pm t^* \times \sqrt{\dfrac{s^2_1}{n_1} + \dfrac{s^2_2}{n_2}}$
where the critical value $t^*$ is the value under the $t_{k}$ distribution with the area $C / 100$ between $t^*$ and $t^*$ (e.g. $t^*$ = 2.086 for a 95% confidence interval when df = 20) The confidence interval for $\mu_1  \mu_2$ can also be used as significance test.  
Effect size  n.a.  
Cohen's $d$: Standardized difference between the sample mean and $\mu_0$: $$d = \frac{\bar{y}  \mu_0}{\sigma}$$ Indicates how many standard deviations $\sigma$ the sample mean $\bar{y}$ is removed from $\mu_0$    
Visual representation  Visual representation  
Example context  Example context  
Is the average mental health score of office workers different from $\mu_0$ = 50? Assume that the standard deviation of the mental health scores in the population is $\sigma$ = 3.  Is the average mental health score different between men and women?  
n.a.  SPSS  
  Analyze > Compare Means > IndependentSamples T Test...
 
n.a.  Jamovi  
  TTests > Independent Samples TTest
 
Practice questions  Practice questions  